Note: The text version of this post was published in the News-Leader and distributed by the USA Today Network on 8/15/19.
Dominion and Duke Energy lost yet another federal permit to build the ill-conceived Atlantic Coast Pipeline (ACP). For the second time, the U.S. Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals vacated Dominion’s permit to take, kill, and destroy habitat for federally listed endangered species.
A bumblebee, a bat, a mussel, and a half-inch, blind crustacean are in the proposed path of the 42-inch, fracked-gas pipeline. All four species are on the brink of extinction—the death of the last individual of the species.
According to the Endangered Species Act (ESA), if a project like the ACP is going to kill or harm a species on the brink of extinction, or destroy its habitat, they must have a permit from the federal agency in charge of protecting the endangered species – the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). The permit must list how many endangered species the project can kill or harm or list how many acres of the species’ habitat it can destroy without jeopardizing the survival of those species.
The Court Threw It Out—Again
July 26, the federal appeals court, for the second time, vacated the permit for the beleaguered Atlantic Coast Pipeline. The court found that the FWS was “arbitrary and capricious” in its decision that the construction of the 605-mile fracked-gas pipeline would “not likely jeopardize the existence” of the four endangered species: the Rusty Patched Bumble Bee, the Madison Cave Isopod, the Clubshell mussel, and the Indiana Bat.
But, wait. Aren’t there also hundreds of people in the path of the pipeline that don’t want Dominion to take their land through eminent domain? Won’t thousands of streams and rivers be damaged by sediment pollution during construction? And what about the environmental injustice in Union Hill where a toxic compressor station for the pipeline is planned in a community of descendants of freed slaves? Isn’t all that enough to stop the pipeline? I am thankful for the law but how does the Endangered Species Act wield so much power?
Some Background on the Law
The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973 was passed unanimously by the Senate and 390 to 12 in the House. It was signed into law by President Nixon.
Representative Leonor Sullivan (D) stated the reason for the law succinctly on July 27, 1973, on the House floor when she introduced the bill. “From the most narrow possible point of view, it is in the best interest of mankind to minimize the losses of genetic variations. The reason is simple: they are potential resources. They are the keys to puzzles which we cannot solve, and may provide answers to questions which we have not yet learned to ask,” she stated.
Aldo Leopold, the father of wildlife conservation in the U.S. said it this way: “The first law of intelligent tinkering is to save all the parts.”
In other words, it is not wise to wipe off the face of the Earth a species that could hold the cure for cancer or any number of human ailments.
We Might Need That Part, Don’t Discard It
Today one-fourth of all pharmaceuticals come from or are derived from, plant and animal material. Examples abound, such as the rare plant in Ecuador, Diplostephium rhododendroides, which contains compounds active against Hepatitis C, and diabetes. The drug Taxol is a compound found in the bark of the Pacific Yew. This miracle compound is the standard treatment for advanced stages of ovarian cancer. The blood from horseshoe crabs, used without the loss of the crab, is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry to test drugs.
I have three friends that have glioblastoma, the deadliest of brain tumors. Maybe the cure for that tumor lies in the genetic material of the isopod in the path of the pipeline. Is it worth wiping out a species so a corporation can make more money from their captive ratepayers?
Fast Tracking the Permit
The permit for allowing the elimination or “taking” of an endangered species or its habitat by Dominion was first vacated on August 6, 2018. In a mere nineteen days, FWS reissued the permits, which the Fourth Circuit tossed out with gusto.
“In fast-tracking its decisions, the agency appears to have lost sight of its mandate under the ESA: ‘to protect and conserve endangered and threatened species and their habitats,’” wrote Chief Judge Gregory (appointed by George H.W. Bush) in his 50-page decision.
The facts didn’t add up. Or were they facts? A unanimous, panel of three federal judges (Gregory, Winn, and Thacker) didn’t think so. The decision was that the FWS was arbitrary and capricious in issuing the permit.
“There is no evidence that this pipeline is needed for anything other than Dominion and Duke Energy profits. For the sake of these rare species and its customers’ wallets, it’s time for these utilities to walk away from this badly planned boondoggle,” stated Patrick Hunter in a press release from the Southern Environmental Law Center, the non-profit legal firm that represents Defenders of Wildlife, the Sierra Club, and the Virginia Wilderness Committee.
If a bee, a bat, a mussel or a crustacean can stop Dominion’s pipeline, I’m all for it. I wish the people in its path had as much standing in court as the critters.
* This photo is rather famous. Steve took the photo on Bill and Lynn Limpert’s property in Bath County where the planned ACP will destroy more than 300 trees older than this country. He did not know the bee was in the photo until he examined it later during a review. FWS confirmed he had photographed the endangered species in the path of the pipeline which spurred more investigation.
Reading about all the possible “parts” to make cures for sicknesses and ailments makes me wonder if there is anything that these corporations hold sacred aside from the dollar bill. I’m confident almost every creature that contributes a part or fluid that makes a potent cure for sickness does not have it blatantly pasted on their bodies. Given this, we may not know for 20 years that one animal could hold the part of a full cure for cancer, but if we go wipe them out and then this out afterward, we will be out of luck and people will die. Research and science are not instantaneous processes, and extinction is a permanent one. We really need to step back and acknowledge was these companies are risking by blatantly wiping out species. Aldo Leopold was right, we really need to save and conserve “all the parts”. The second we start thinking about this concept when making these developmental decisions, we will start thinking about what is best for the future of humanity, and not what is the quickest way to make a lot of money. Unfortunately, that is the ongoing mindset for most big corporations, so we must fight to change it for the betterment of mankind.
It is honestly ridiculous that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) decided that the construction of the ACP pipeline would “not likely jeopardize the existence” of the four endangered species: the Rusty Patched Bumble Bee, the Madison Cave Isopod, the Clubshell mussel, and the Indiana Bat. All of these endangered species have particular roles in our environment. For example, the Rusty Patched Bumble Bee plays a critical role in the transfer of pollen from flower to flower. Many plant species are dependent upon, resulting in fruit and seed production that provides food for other wildlife and helps maintain a healthy ecosystem, especially to those living in it like our community. These endangered species have experienced enough habitat loss and degradation already, and the problem of climate change and disease have also contributed to their decline. There are so many reasons to care for our endangered species. As you stated, one-fourth of all pharmaceuticals today come from/are derived from plant and animal material. It is crucial for environmentalists, more importantly- everyone, to give those animals a voice in environmental decisions.
Very good, Erin!
I remember us talking about this in class and found it very interesting. I did not know that 1 out of 4 pharmaceuticals is made from plant or animal material. This means that so many medicines that help people could be in jeopardy due to the wiping out of land for animals. The land is being destroyed for the sake of industry and short-term economics. Something that we need to consider is that the world is moving into a more environmentally friendly mode of industry. We cannot continue to invest in harmful fuel practices because there is no long-term benefit. It was also interesting to learn about the various animals that have had an impact on pharmaceutical companies and what illnesses they can cure. I look forward to doing my research about which animals have had a great impact on the world in curing illnesses. Hopefully, by increasing my knowledge about these animals, I can be a better advocate for them in the future.
Very good, Katie!
I completely agree that is amazing that we have the Endangered Species Act in place. However, I don’t understand how the human species can be so meaningless to these companies. This makes me think of The Lorax and how they take and take until they are left with nothing and that feels like what is happening in society today. Money is what is driving these companies and they have no regard to the land, animals, or fellow humans they bring harm to. I think action needs to be taken to protect species, land, and even human life in a more rigorous manner. It is insane to me that policy makers have let things get this bad and something needs to change before The Lorax becomes reality.
Rhyan, you are so right! You are going to be a part of that change.
I was surprised to discover that one in four pharmaceuticals is derived from plant and animal material. And some of these pharmaceuticals are used to combat some of the World’s deadliest diseases, such as Hepatitis C, Ovarian cancer, and diabetes. I’m not surprised, however, that corporations continue to advance their profit-induced goals regardless of who or what they destroy in their path – this is a common theme exemplified in America that will not change as long as the system continues to benefit them. I am thankful for the EPA and its importance in preventing the formulation of pipelines and other projects likely to endanger more species and the habitats they were to pass. Until policymakers and people understand the extent of evil in which these corporations act, profit-driven situations like this will continue to happen.
This read made me realize that the Atlantic Coast Pipeline would do a lot more damage to the environment than just tarnish the water. After learning about how it could affect animal populations, and even make those on the brink of extinction go extinct, it makes me disagree with it even more. I think there should be more focus on animal species and how they play a crucial role not only to environmental health, but to human health alone. I found it very interesting how involved Leopold was and how adamant he was on this topic. In one of my other classes, we are actually talking about Leopold and his love and appreciation for nature. It’s frustrating to hear about the permits being issued back so quickly but when the court struck it down, it is relieving to hear. It makes you trust the courts a little more for being able to see through the money-hungry corporations.
From reading this post, I learned that endangered species and little parts of wildlife like crustaceans hold a big part in human life. I never really thought that any of these species would make a difference but then learned that they might have a cure for cancer or hold material that could greatly benefit science. It is easy to look past little species like these and assume that they don’t matter in the grand scheme of things and many would even disregard their existence when creating projects such as the ACP. After reading this blog post, I learned even more how the ACP would have damaged the environment and how corporations like Dominion greatly disregard the environment, people, and animals for the sake of money.
Spot on, Juliana. Thank you.
While reading this article, I was a bit shocked that a permit does exist where the FWS lists the species allowed to be harmed. In my opinion, I think every organization that handles wildlife care should be actively saving animals on the endangered species list. No exceptions. The reasoning behind the passage was also interesting because, while they didn’t know it in the 1970s, the Endangered Species Act is now a prominent policy in helping the fight against climate change. I believe there is enough evidence now that the policies in place should be in favor of saving and preserving the environment.
i genuinely had no idea the importance of endangered species within the medical field. the fact that one-fourth of all pharmaceuticals come from or are derived from, plant and animal material is an astonishing fact i had no idea . i remember in class you discussing how the idea that an endangered species could possibly be the answer to cure a disease such as brain tumors can be used against organizations attempting to build in over them
All right, you made it. Thank you, Chris.
When reading this, a line that immediately stuck out to me was ““The first law of intelligent tinkering is to save all the parts.” While this was meant as a reference to wildlife conservation, it made me really tie together all we have learned about all the damage the Pipeline would’ve caused. From damage to minority communities, water streams, soil erosion, and endangered species, how on Earth did it still get “greenlit” by Dominion before getting shut down? It is crazy that despite the plethora of evidence, the government still yields so much power that it was possible for this project to get funding. In addition to the bigger picture, I was shocked to find out about the pharmaceutical industry’s use of animals/plants in many of their products. Humans often treat the Earth as their own personal toybox with all its materials ours for the taking (for the “advancement” of society), but I am glad that more and more people are beginning to wake up and fight for the voiceless (animals, the environment, etc).
Catherine, what a well-thought-out, well-written response. Thank you. One of the things that happened was “agency capture.” And probably legislature capture as well. Dominion buys its way through the executive branch and the legislative branch. Very discouraging but legal.
As a country that makes so much money (over $625 billion annually) from the production of pharmaceuticals, you would think that we would place more importance on the protection of resources that could be essential to the development of new drugs. The quote “the first law of intelligent tinkering is to save all parts” is impactful. How can we rule out these endangered species as potential sources for cures to existing or unknown diseases? I agree with this article that is of the utmost importance that we preserve genetic variation as it is essential for a healthy ecosystem.
One would expect the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) to put the endangered species ahead of Dominion. It is quite clear that institutions do not prioritize things as they are meant to. This same concept extends to the last point made within this post. One could hope that the courtesy extended to endangered species, be offered to human beings in the path of the pipeline. In the grand scheme, whatever the method used to stop the construction, the goal is to avoid the construction of pipelines. If this means that using endangered species as a means to cease construction, so be it. I do not mean to say endangered species are not important to protect. The idea that we cannot throw away all the parts because we’ve yet to discover all their potential uses is very interesting.
It is really sad that endangered species have more power in a courtroom than the citizens whom the pipeline will directly affect. While I do believe that these endangered species must be protected, it seems like Dominion glossed over the fact that they are impeding on the land of ordinary citizens. Furthermore, I found it very interesting that so many of those species that could be affected have pharmaceutical purposes. If Dominion were to build the ACP, it could jeopardize the medical health of so many Americans within the immediate vicinity of the pipeline. It would not shock me if Dominion is doing some behind the scenes tinkering in order to earn permits that they do not need. Dominion has faced a bribery scandal in the past, and it would not shock me if they are still trying to pull strings behind the scenes.
With something called the Endangered Species Act you would think that killing, removing and destroying the habitat of all endangered species would be illegal. It blows my mind that a corporation can legally kill an endangered species as long as they have a permit. Alternatively, it sounds to me like the Endangered Species Act allows for the killing, removing and destruction of habitat for all non-endangered species. In my opinion, there should be no tolerance for endangered species and permits for non-endangered species, that way those non-endangered species don’t become endangered/extinct, and those endangered species don’t go extinct. Yes it is the best way to prevent big corporations from ruining the environment, but it should be time for newer more pressing legislation.
This blog post really opened my eyes because of how much we rely on these endangered species, and how the access to this may be restricted due to large corporations. Plant and animal material are used for a variety of things like treating cancer, treating illness and testing drugs. Like the blog says, these big corporations do not care about the people or wild life that they are possibly affecting by building these pipelines. Dominion and other companies pushing the construction of these pipelines are trying to destroy the streams just for a profit. Together, we need to keep persuading the denial of these pipelines because these endangered species may provide more help to us than we have already discovered. The construction of these pipelines can only do more harm than good.
So many reasons why this pipeline is such a bad idea. These animals are endangered and shouldn’t become extinct. That right there should be enough of a reason not to go on with this project. Then the medicine in the article that we get from this also important. What are we going to do if we have none of the animals needed? Then the land. Some people have had land in their family for generations
I knew it was important to save endangered species partially because they can be used to treat certain ailments, but I had no idea that one-fourth of all pharmaceuticals come from plant and animal material. Many animals and plants hold so much value to human life, which adds to why the destruction caused by these pipelines is so bad.
I think this act was a very interesting and important act. It shows that we do actually care about animals, which is reassuring. Unfortunately, I don’t believe this act can save every animal affected by climate change and destruction. Too many pipelines and forests being destroyed, which cannot be stopped no matter what. The App. Pipeline’s defeat still plays a big role in protecting these species, no matter how small it may seem in comparison to the big picture.
The sacrifices Dominion was willing to through in order to maximize their profits are even worse when the consequences wouldn’t be solely on them. An individual making a rash and bad decision is one thing, but it’s different when a megacorporation can make a decision that affects everyone without thinking things through or considering the consequences of their expansion. Because of Dominion’s profit-based seeking for short-term growth, they severely undervalued the long-term growth preserving endangered species can have on humanity as a whole, which is what happens when people or corporations prioritize profits over the future.
I think it’s amazing how small a species can be and make a huge impact, to where they can stop a pipeline from disturbing their home. Regarding the Union hill situations I find it very disghuting that’s that Dominion would begin to think it was okay to out the compressor in area where its historic to the African American community. It goes to show the environmental injustices. For people to have to protest for basic things that concern their health as well as noise disturbacnce in their community shouldn’t even be up for discussion. It was easy decision when it came to endangered spices it should be the same for the Union Hills residents.
Before reading this and discussing in class I’ve always understood why species diversity and richness is so important to maintaining healthy ecosystems and that it enables our environment to help protect itself the more we protect those key species, but I hadn’t realized how important so many species are to medicine and pharmaceuticals. You’d think an industry as powerful as that one would prioritize protecting those species rather than letting them become further exploited, but it shows just how real the Lorax story is and can become. I’m very thankful for policy like the Endangered Species Act, but hope more follow it that are stronger and better ensure protection for essential species that are hard to get the public to care about.
This definitely reminds me of what you were talking about with agency capture. I hate how so often money and status is chosen over the actual people public servants are suppose to be serving. I cannot believe an organization focused on conservation would side with such destructive actions, it’s honestly very upsetting.
We have talked many times in class about how important it is to save what we may need later, and even just for the sake of biodiversity, even if we never use something we save now as a resource later. I once saw a documentary called “Seed” (I think from the same people that brought us “Dirt”). The issue they talked about was that due to droughts, bad years for crops, or forgetting to replant seeds from harvest, we have lost a large percent of speciation for many of our agricultural resources over the last hundreds of years. We could be healthier as a human population if we had more of this diversity in our diets, but unfortunately many species are gone forever. When we use the ESA in court cases, it feels very similar to me as using seed banks to promote the agricultural biodiversity we still have left. I agree with you, though, that the human lives, heritages, and stake should hold more legal value in these arguments against the building of pipelines and other harmful projects.
The larger impacts and utilities of maintaining biodiversity and protecting endangered species was something before this class and this article specifically I had not considered. The fact that 1/4th of pharmaceuticals derive from plant and animal sources stood out the most to me, speaking greatly to the need to maintain these species and the great need we may have for them that we simply have not discovered yet. The eliminating of endangered species is yet another dimension of destruction to this pipeline which already threatens the greater environment and communities in its path.
The thing that I love about this website is that it is resourceful, informative, and enlightening. This blog, and all the other blogs on this website that I have read thus far, have taught me something new. It is important to preserve the abundant species that reside on this Earth, as they play a part in the ecosystem and could be the key to a human ailment or disease. The story of the ACP is inspiring, but definitely brings up many questions for me. If the ACP was planned to run through white communities, would there have been any question at all of environmental justice? What if the ACP was implemented and only then people noticed the environmental impacts of this pipeline? Why did it take so many people, so much time, so much effort, and protesting and petitioning and court cases for the ACP to be cancelled? It seems like common sense to me, but it seems as though for many large corporations, the top priority is making a profit at the expense of what is actually important.
I didn’t know these endangered species were the official reason for stopping the ACP. I thought it had been done through the protests and outcry from so many people. People trying to protect their land and livelihoods. But for some reason, these animals have more say in what happens than the people being affected by the pipeline. I consider myself an environmentalist, who believes protecting species is of utmost importance, but like this article states, people should be protected too. I have started working closely with Dominion in my internship, and work with people who used to be Dominion employees. I have also listened to multiple panels at a conference involving Dominion employees. These people are so intelligent, professional, and easy to talk to. Knowing them personally, while knowing what the company is doing, baffles me. They have smart, good willed people working for them, but it seems the corporation has driven good people to questionable work.
The biggest thing that stuck out to me about this was how much power that the Endangered Species Act has, even over large corporations. It is only one part of the destruction that the pipeline would cause, and a seemingly small part of it considering how large the effect would be on communities and the watersheds on which the pipeline would be constructed. Another thing that was interesting to me was how easily this environmental law passed through congress back in 1973. If only we could be this bipartisan regarding environmental laws and regulations in today’s world.
Saving endangered species is not just about the possibility that they contain medicine useful to humans, but I think a more important reason is to prevent an irreversible loss of diversity. Species diversity gives environments character and uniqueness that can not be artificially replicated after these species have been lost. If enough species fall to extinction, it can have very drastic effects on the environment, since we might not be able to know a keystone species before it is too late. We just don’t know the future or current impacts of these species well enough to make the decision to kill them all off.
I have recently had personal experience with this topic, so seeing it from the perspective of others is interesting. My capstone project was set to focus on the development of a utility-scale wind farm sitting right on Virginia’s Western border. This project was started several years ago so it was fairly far along in the process and was to the point of involving outside developers. A few weeks ago we met with one of these potential developers and received news that the site was not ideal due to its proximity to the Virginia big-eared bat’s hibernacula. The Virginia big-eared bat is an endangered species, and wind turbines notoriously result in many more bat takes than bird takes. This made developing the site a threat to the species’ existence. While this meant we needed to change direction for our capstone project, it never crossed my mind to continue with the current project and potentially play a role in the bat’s extinction. It is crazy to me that there are so many companies that value profits over doing the right thing and would knowingly cause an entire species to not exist anymore.
Notice how endangered species, ANIMALS, are considered before marginalized groups of PEOPLE. “If a bee, a bat, a mussel or a crustacean can stop Dominion’s pipeline, I’m all for it. I wish the people in its path had as much standing in court as the critters.” I agree with this statement 100%. Are there laws preventing operations detrimental to human health from occurring the same way there are laws for protecting endangered animals? If so, I wonder why those laws are not used as the primary reason for stopping a project like ACP. And if not, why not? Seems like some new legislation needs to be written…
It surprised me by just how many pharmaceuticals are derived from animal and plant materials. Wiping out populations of plants and animals can prohibit the next possible medicine which has not been discovered yet to cure a deadly disease. It shocks me by the amount of damage the ACP would do and how Dominion and Duke Energy do not care about the environmental repercussions the pipeline would have made. It seems to me the most important thing to these large corporations is simply profit, and they will disregard any people, animals, plants, or environmental problems it will put in harm’s way. I am grateful the endangered species were able to make a difference in court, however, why do the people who have been put in harm’s way as well not matter just as much as them.
I completely agree with the final statement in the article: “If a bee, a bat, a mussel or a crustacean can stop Dominion’s pipeline, I’m all for it. I wish the people in its path had as much standing in court as the critters.” It reminds me of a discussion we had recently in my environmental ethics class about the need for inherent worth placed on species. It’s unfortunate that there has to be an anthropogenic need for species in order for them to be protected from human destruction. Although I don’t know much about court strategies or how to influence policy, the irony of the court’s value of species that may be “useful”, rather than their fellow humans that would have their lives, land, and the nature they’ve protected destroyed, is very apparent.
This is an article that makes me think two different things. In one way I am thankful that there was a law that helped prohibit the ACP, but on the same token, it makes me confused as to why human life, private property, or even the protesting of a lot of people seemed to be meaningless as far as keeping projects that affect so many stakeholders from happening. I think it is important to think about scenarios like this and how to better approach them in the future, but we need to recognize in this case that a win is a win.
It’s strange that animals can have more power over a project like this than people. That being said, I’m sure if there were no Endangered Species Act, they wouldn’t even be an afterthought. Perhaps there needs to be a more effective way for these big companies to evaluate how their actions affect human welfare as well. It’s strange to see where priorities lie for companies that are supposed to be providing a service to their customers, instead they carry themselves like they have power over their constituents.
It’s very interesting to me that the only way that we can assign value to something in our society that warrants any sort of protection like the extinction of a species is as a “potential resource” that may not have fulfilled its full use to us. While this is not surprising or highly different than what I had formerly thought, I had never heard it stated so plainly. The difference in the legal protection that exists for the health of endangered species compared to a historically black community is also not surprising but is still startling when observed side by side in this issue. It has been my understanding that there were enough objections to the construction of the compressor station in parkland because of the danger that it posed to the health of the immediate ecosystem that the planning of its construction shifted to Union Hill instead. The entire fight for the protection of the Union Hill community is a prime example of environmental racism and environmental socioeconomic injustice that exists due to a lack of adequate legislative protection for human health that disproportionately impacts communities of color.
This article was very interesting and added details to the Atlantic coast pipeline that I didn’t know before. Such as the FWS giving Duke and Dominion a permit for the construction but it was nice to see that the judge saw right through this when it came to his decision. It is nice to see the preservation of these species but it is unfortunate that the people that would be affected were not as large of a factor as the endangered species.
It’s shocking to see that harming or causing a species to go extinct is acceptable as long as you have the proper permit for it. However, it is cool to think that those species also have the ability to delay or stop these harmful projects from happening, even if the species in question has no say in whether or not the project occurs. I like the mentioned concept of “saving all the parts” just in case these different species hold the key to solving other issues. We never know what we may discover in the future and it would be unfortunate if extinct species held new discoveries that we will now never know due to their extinction. Furthermore, this way of thinking applies to human lives as well. The damage caused by pipelines negatively affects people as well and can cause health issues. What if those people affected could’ve contributed more to society if they had been taken into consideration?
This is yet another example of a big name company trying to bully their way through to get what they want. Their motives are unethical, unjust, and cases like these are inspiring to hear. I am glad that the courts voted in favor of the endangered species, but the point brought up about how critters have more power in court than the humans that would also be affected is interesting to think about. We have so many laws, regulations, and rules about land and animals, but I think people are often left out of the equation and companies think they can just bypass community opinions for capital gain.
It crazy to think that these species are what put an end to the ACP. I had thought that the decision to stop the pipeline project came from the protests of local residence and those supporting them because the pipeline would disturb their air and water quality. Tis goes to show there are multiple routes to fight these environmental issues and we should exhaust all options, we should also put a lot more consideration into creating laws which prohibit the construction of facilities or releases of pollutants that will harm humans
I remember talking about the different uses of animals in production in our first day of class; it seems like such a simple concept, but I’m always amazed at how many people don’t seem to understand the complex interconnections between our species and others. Thinking of this concept in the context of extinction was very different for me. I feel like in every post we go back to the same simple question of how could companies, organizations, or individuals have such a blatant disregard for the wellbeing of others. Whether it is an environmental health, human health, or the health of endangered species, it seems like institutions everywhere are purposefully ignoring the needs of our planet. The Endangered Species Act is an extremely important piece of legislation, however, more action is unequivocally needed.
The endangered species act is such an important piece of legislation that has done so much to protect or environment by protecting the species that exist within it. It amazes me that such small animals just existing where they do have the ability to help put an end to such a harmful project like the ACP. It important to keep acts such as these in tact so that they can go on to help improve the environment and keep necessary members of the ecosystem alive.